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Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels

 Engl., Monogr. afrik. Pflanzen-Fam. 4: 26, t. 14B (1900).
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Vernacular names  
 Limba, white afara, shinglewood, white mukonja, Congo walnut (En). Limba, fraké, noyer du Mayombe (Fr). Limbo (Po). Mwalambe (Sw).
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Origin and geographic distribution  
 Terminalia superba is widespread in West and Central Africa, from Guinea Bissau east to DR Congo and south to Cabinda (Angola). It has been planted in many tropical countries outside the natural distribution area as a promising timber plantation species, e.g. in Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Australia, Brazil and Argentina.
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 The wood, usually traded as ‘limba’, ‘afara’, ‘ofram’ or ‘fraké’, is valued for interior joinery, door posts and panels, mouldings, furniture, office-fittings, crates, matches, and particularly for veneer and plywood. It is suitable for light construction, light flooring, ship building, interior trim, vehicle bodies, sporting goods, toys, novelties, musical instruments, food containers, vats, turnery, hardboard, particle board and pulpwood. It is used locally for temporary house construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils. It is suitable for paper making, although the paper is of moderate quality. The wood is also used as firewood and for charcoal production.
A yellow dye is present in the bark; it is used traditionally to dye fibres for matting and basketry. The bark is also used for dyeing textiles blackish. Bark decoctions and macerations are used in traditional medicine to treat wounds, sores, haemorrhoids, diarrhoea, dysentery, malaria, vomiting, gingivitis, bronchitis, aphthae, swellings and ovarian troubles, and as an expectorant and anodyne. The leaves serve as diuretic and roots as laxative. In Côte d’Ivoire Terminalia superba is occasionally used as a shade tree in cocoa and coffee plantations, and in DR Congo it is used as shade tree in coffee, cocoa and banana plantations.
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Production and international trade  
 Terminalia superba was one of the major timbers of Africa. In the 1960s Congo exported on average 210,000 m³ of logs per year, but the export declined to 60,000 m³ in 1973 and to only 5000 m³ in 1983. Also in other countries the export increased since the beginning of the 1970s, but declined later, e.g. in Côte d’Ivoire from 50,000 m³ in 1973 to 132,000 m³ in 1983 and to 2300 m³ in 1996, and in Cameroon from 3600 m³ in 1960 to 221,000 m³ in 1997 and 71,000 in 2003. Terminalia superba still yields an important export timber with in 2005 a total value on the international market of at least US$ 25 million. The major export countries at present are Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Cameroon. In 2005 Côte d’Ivoire exported 21,000 m³ of sawn wood at an average price of US$ 439/m³, and Ghana 24,000 m³ of sawn wood at US$ 286/m³ and 3000 m³ of plywood at US$ 328/m³. In 2006 Ghana exported 20,000 m³ of sawn wood at an average price of US$ 311/m³ and 6000 m³ of plywood at an average price of US$ 454/m³. In 2005 Cameroon exported 17,000 m³ of logs at an average price of US$ 128/m³, 15,000 m³ of sawn wood at an average price of US$ 237/m³ and 3000 m³ of plywood at an average price of US$ 256/m³. In 2006 the same country exported 22,000 m³ of logs at an average price of US$ 211/m³, 13,000 m³ of sawn wood at an average price of US$ 311/m³ and 1000 m³ of plywood at an average price of US$ 228/m³.
Congo and DR Congo also export considerable quantities of Terminalia superba timber, but supplies have declined. In 1995 the export from Congo was 10,000 m³ of logs and from DR Congo 3000 m³ of logs and 1000 m³ of sawn wood. In 2003 Congo still exported 1000 m³ of sawn wood at an average price of US$ 265/m³. More recent statistics are not available for both countries.
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 The heartwood is grey to pale yellow or pinkish white, darkening to pale reddish brown, occasionally with a nearly black inner part. It is not clearly demarcated from the 12–15 cm wide sapwood. The grain is straight to slightly interlocked, texture moderately coarse.
The wood is moderately lightweight to medium-weight, with a density of (370–) 430–730 kg/m³ at 12% moisture content. It air dries rapidly with little degrade. The rates of shrinkage are moderate, from green to oven dry 2.0–6.4% radial and 4.4–8.7% tangential. Once dry, the wood is stable in service.
At 12% moisture content the modulus of rupture is 50–133(–157) N/mm², modulus of elasticity (3625–)4700–14,300(–16,660) N/mm², compression parallel to grain 26–67 N/mm², compression perpendicular to grain 8–12 N/mm², shear 4.5–10 N/mm², cleavage 7.5–23.5 N/mm, Janka side hardness 3020 N, Janka end hardness 3420 N and Chalais-Meudon side hardness (0.4–)0.8–4.2.
The wood is easy to saw and work with both hand and machine tools; the blunting effect on cutting edges is slight. The wood finishes well, but the use of a filler is necessary. It holds nails and screws well, but has some tendency to splitting. It glues satisfactorily. The wood can be made into good-quality veneer by slicing as well as rotary peeling. The steam-bending properties are poor.
The wood is not durable, being liable to attacks by pin-hole borers, powder-post beetles, longhorn beetles, termites and marine borers. The heartwood is resistant, the sapwood moderately resistant to preservatives. Wood splinters may cause severe inflammation of the skin, and sawdust allergic reactions to skin and respiratory organs in wood workers. The wood has satisfactory paper-making properties, although the quality of the paper produced is moderate, particularly concerning tearing strength.
The wood contains 40–45% cellulose, 28–35% lignin, 14–17.5% pentosan, 0.9–3.4% ash and very small amounts of silica. The solubility is 1.5–4% in alcohol-benzene, 2.4–8% in hot water and 14.6–21% in 1% NaOH solution.
A methanol extract of the stem bark showed vasorelaxant effects on isolated rat aorta. Stem bark extracts also showed antidiabetic activity in tests with streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Ethanol extracts of the roots and stems showed distinct trypanocidal activity against both drug-sensitive as well as multi-drug-resistant strains of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei. The bark contains gallic acid and methyl gallate, which showed significant glycosidase inhibition activity.
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 Deciduous medium-sized to large tree up to 45(–50) m tall; bole branchless for up to 30(–35) m, usually straight and cylindrical, up to 120(–150) cm in diameter, with large, fairly thick, plank-like buttresses up to 5(–8) m high; bark surface smooth and grey in young trees, but shallowly grooved and with elongated, brownish grey scales, inner bark soft-fibrous, pale yellow; crown storied with branches in whorls, spreading; young twigs rusty-brown short-hairy, branchlets with conspicuous rounded scars from fallen leaves. Leaves arranged spirally, clustered near ends of branchlets, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole (1.5–)3–6(–7) cm long, with 2 glands near apex; blade obovate, (4–)6–17(–20) cm × (2.5–)4–10 cm, cuneate at base, short-acuminate at apex, thinly leathery, glabrous, pinnately veined with 4–7 pairs of lateral veins. Inflorescence an axillary spike 7–20 cm long, slender; peduncle 1–4 cm long, short-hairy. Flowers bisexual or male, regular, usually 5-merous; receptacle spindle-shaped, 1.5–3 mm long; sepals triangular, c. 1.5 mm long; petals absent; stamens usually 10, free, 1.5–3 mm long; disk annular, densely woolly hairy; ovary inferior, 1-celled, style 2–2.5 mm long, sparsely hairy. Fruit a winged nut, transversely oblong-elliptical in outline, 1.5–2.5 cm × 4–7 cm including the wing, nut c. 1.5 cm × 7 mm, golden brown, glabrous, indehiscent, 1-seeded. Seedling with epigeal germination; hypocotyl 3–4 cm long, epicotyl 1.5–2 cm long; cotyledons leafy, spreading; first 2 leaves opposite.
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Other botanical information  
 Terminalia is a pantropical genus of about 200 species. In tropical mainland Africa about 30 species occur naturally, in Madagascar about 35.
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 Growth rings: (1: growth ring boundaries distinct); (2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent). Vessels: 5: wood diffuse-porous; 13: simple perforation plates; 22: intervessel pits alternate; 23: shape of alternate pits polygonal; 26: intervessel pits medium (7–10 μm); 27: intervessel pits large ( 10 μm); 29: vestured pits; 30: vessel-ray pits with distinct borders; similar to intervessel pits in size and shape throughout the ray cell; (31: vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple: pits rounded or angular); 43: mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina 200 μm; 46: 5 vessels per square millimetre; 47: 5–20 vessels per square millimetre; (58: gums and other deposits in heartwood vessels). Tracheids and fibres: 61: fibres with simple to minutely bordered pits; 66: non-septate fibres present; 69: fibres thin- to thick-walled. Axial parenchyma: 79: axial parenchyma vasicentric; 80: axial parenchyma aliform; 82: axial parenchyma winged-aliform; 83: axial parenchyma confluent; (89: axial parenchyma in marginal or in seemingly marginal bands); 92: four (3–4) cells per parenchyma strand; 93: eight (5–8) cells per parenchyma strand; 94: over eight cells per parenchyma strand. Rays: 96: rays exclusively uniseriate; 104: all ray cells procumbent; (115: 4–12 rays per mm); 116: 12 rays per mm. Secretory elements and cambial variants: 131: intercellular canals of traumatic origin. Mineral inclusions: (151: styloids and/or elongated crystals).
(E. Uetimane, H. Beeckman & P. Gasson)
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Growth and development  
 Growth is rhythmic, resulting in clustered leaves and whorled branches. Annual growth rates of 2.5 m in height have been reported for the first 10 years after planting, but in Ghana trees have reached 14 m in height and 22 cm in bole diameter at an age of 4 years. Under good conditions planted trees may reach a bole diameter of 50 cm in 20 years. In natural forest in the Central African Republic a mean annual bole diameter increment of 9.5 mm has been recorded, in Cameroon 11 mm. The average annual increment in heartwood volume in plantations has been estimated at 14.5 m³/ha.
The trees are self-pruning, soon developing long and clear boles, up to 16 m long when 12 years old. They are leafless for 2–3 months in the dry season. New leaves and flowers appear at the beginning of the rainy season. Trees may start flowering when the bole is 30 cm in diameter, which can be reached after 6 years. The flowers are visited in the second half of the day by insects such as flies and bees. The age of first fruiting is variable between 15 and 25(–37) years. The fruits ripen 6–9 months after flowering in the dry season and are dispersed by wind. They are usually produced annually and in large quantities. In Central Africa the bark is often removed by elephants.
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 Terminalia superba is most common in moist semi-deciduous forest, but can also be found in evergreen forest. It occurs up to 1000 m altitude. It is most common in disturbed forest. It is found in regions with an annual rainfall of (1000–)1400–3000(–3500) mm and a dry season up to 4 months, and mean annual temperatures of 23–27°C. Terminalia superba prefers well-drained, fertile, alluvial soils with pH of about 6.0, but it tolerates a wide range of soil types, from sandy to clayey-loamy and lateritic. It does not tolerate prolonged waterlogging, but withstands occasional flooding. It is susceptible to fire. Terminalia superba is often found in association with Triplochiton scleroxylon K.Schum.
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Propagation and planting  
 Terminalia superba is classified as a pioneer species. It usually regenerates well after forest exploitation. Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps. One kg contains 5000–7000 fruits, and about 8000–10,000 de-winged nuts. The seeds show some dormancy. After collection, fruits should be dried in the sun for a few days. Fresh, sun-dried seeds have a germination rate of up to 90%, decreasing to less than 50% when stored for a year. However, when stored at 2–4°C a germination rate of 40–60% can still be reached after 2 years. Tests in Ghana showed that seeds can best be stored in polyethylene bags at 0–2°C, with a germination rate of 45% after 15 months of storage. Soaking seeds in concentrated sulphuric acid for 15 minutes followed by rinsing them for 15 minutes with water gave the best germination results, but soaking in water for 24 hours also showed good results.
The seeds should be covered by a thin layer of sand. Germination starts 1.5–3(–4) weeks after sowing. Seedlings are susceptible to drought, and should be watered daily. In the nursery, they are usually slightly shaded until they are 2 months old. Inoculation with endomycorrhizae enhances the growth of seedlings by about 25% after 10 weeks. In experiments in Nigeria it was found that the application of ammonium sulphate at 100 ppm and NPK 15:15:15 at 50–100 ppm showed best results in height growth of seedlings.
The seedlings are transplanted after 6–7 weeks when 5–8 cm tall into nursery beds at a spacing of 20 cm × 50 cm. This should be done carefully to avoid damage to the taproot. They often remain in the nursery for at least one year until they have reached a height of about 2 m. Stumps can be used for planting out, usually prepared from 18-months-old plants. They should be 1 m long and have a stem diameter of at least 10 mm, whereas the taproot should be at least 40 cm long and not be bent at planting. In Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire direct sowing in containers is preferred, plants being ready for planting after 3–4 months; in this way post-planting stress is reduced and early growth is faster. Planting should be done at the beginning of the rainy season. The planting holes should be 40 cm × 40 cm × 40 cm. Establishment rates of over 80% have been recorded. Softwood cuttings taken from the vigorous coppice shoots produced by cutting back young trees rooted in 2 weeks under mist and 50% shadow, with a rooting percentage of 11–100% depending on the degree of rejuvenation. Methods of vegetative multiplication by grafting have been developed. The use of physiologically juvenile scions and young trees seems promising for cloning mature trees.
Trees are planted in spacings of 3 m × 3 m to 12 m × 12 m. In Nigeria optimum spacing has been suggested to be 4–5 m × 4–5 m.
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 In natural forest in Cameroon an average density of 0.4–3.5 Terminalia superba tree with a minimum bole diameter of 60 cm per ha has been recorded, with an average wood volume of 3–28 m³/ha. In Côte d’Ivoire 22,000 ha of Terminalia superba plantations have been established between 1967 and 1994, and in 1975 in Congo about 6500 ha. The natural forest is usually clear-cut and burned and all remaining vegetation removed, so that seedlings can be planted in full light. Final stocking is usually 12 m × 12 m, and sometimes plantations are established from the beginning at this spacing, and then thinning is not needed. When the initial spacing is closer, the first thinning should be done after 4–6 years when trees have reached a height of about 10 m, the second at a height of about 15 m and the third at 20 m.
Terminalia superba can be planted in pure stand or in mixed stands with other timber species such as Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev., Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C.Berg and Triplochiton scleroxylon K.Schum., or on fertile soils with Khaya and Entandrophragma spp. An experiment conducted in Congo showed that weeds affected tree growth only in the first year, and that the use of a taungya system by intercropping with groundnut, maize, pigeon pea and soya bean reduced weeds and had no adverse effect on tree growth. Mulching in the first year after planting controlled weeds and improved growth of Terminalia superba. In Congo Terminalia superba planted together with banana showed good results, but association with cocoa showed poor production results for both tree crops.
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Diseases and pests  
 Young plantations in Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria have been defoliated by larvae of the moth Epicerura spp. and by the locust Zonocerus variegatus, which may cause considerable decrease of the yield. Spraying with the insecticides decamethrin and thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate at concentrations of 900 g and 300 g active ingredient per ha, respectively, showed good results, but a virus disease attacking the pest was also identified. Standing boles are often attacked by ambrosia beetles of the genus Doliopygus. This results in small blackish holes in the wood. Newly planted stumps can be attacked by termites; this can be avoided by treating the base with insecticides.
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 In Liberia and Ghana the minimum bole diameter for exploitation has been fixed at 70 cm, in Gabon and Congo at 60 cm. The rotation that is often applied in plantations is 40 years, but under optimum conditions it can be only 20–25 years. Older trees often develop boles with brittle heart.
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 The total wood volume of plantations of Terminalia superba harvested at an age of 20–25 years was estimated at 330 m³/ha. However, yields in plantations range from 6 m³/ha to 25 m³/ha annually. In natural forest a tree of 60 cm in bole diameter yields 3.3–4.0 m³ of wood, one of 90 cm 8.2–10.2 m³ and one of 120 cm 15.5–20.2 m³.
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Handling after harvest  
 Freshly harvested logs should be removed from the forest immediately, or de-barked and treated with fungicides and insecticides, to avoid attacks by fungi and borers. They float in water and can thus be transported by river.
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Genetic resources and breeding  
 As a pioneer species with abundant regeneration and a wide distribution, Terminalia superba is not easily liable to genetic erosion. However, it is one of the most heavily exploited African timber species, and locally supplies have dwindled, with reports of declining populations in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon and Congo. This is compensated for a small part by the establishment of plantations. Its ability to colonize abandoned agricultural land and heavily exploited forest make that Terminalia superba is less susceptible to forest clearance than many other tree species.
Provenances have been tested in Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon and Congo, especially concerning growth rates and wood characteristics. Several provenances originating from tropical Africa have been planted in other tropical countries, e.g. 13 provenances have been tried in Ecuador; these showed considerable differences in performance. The genetic variability of Terminalia superba has been assessed, using samples from Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, the Central African Republic and Congo. The samples from Côte d’Ivoire were found to represent a distinct group.
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 Clonal breeding is a line of research in the genetic improvement programme for Terminalia superba; it was shown valuable in trials in Congo. It is known that there are significant clonal differences in wood formation, e.g. regarding rate of growth and radial dimensions of vessels, fibres and parenchyma.
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 Terminalia superba is one of the major timber-producing species from tropical Africa. However, it seems that supplies from natural forest are declining in several countries, and they are expected to decline in the near future in other countries. The establishment of plantations is a good option for this species with its high growth rates, but this should be done at a much larger scale than is the case at present to counteract the declining production from natural forest. Studies in DR Congo showed that Terminalia superba is suitable for planting in agroforestry sytems as a shade tree in combination with timber production. Terminalia superba was identified in Nigeria to have high potential for the development of integrated crop-livestock (sheep and goats) agroforestry technologies based on fodder yield and concentrations of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and lignin.
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Major references  
 • Bolza, E. & Keating, W.G., 1972. African timbers: the properties, uses and characteristics of 700 species. Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. 710 pp.
• Burkill, H.M., 1985. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 1, Families A–D. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 960 pp.
• CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Terminalia superba. [Internet] http://www.cabicompendi fc/report.asp?ccode=tem_su. Accessed October 2008.
• CTFT (Centre Technique Forestier Tropical), 1974. Limba-fraké. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 158: 33–49.
• Groulez, J. & Wood, P.J., 1985. Terminalia superba, a monograph. Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford, United Kingdom & Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent sur-Marne, France. 77 pp.
• Hawthorne, W.D., 1995. Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Tropical Forestry Papers 29. Oxford Forestry Institute, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. 345 pp.
• Liben, L., 1983. Combretaceae. Flore du Cameroun. Volume 25. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France. 97 pp.
• Takahashi, A., 1978. Compilation of data on the mechanical properties of foreign woods (part 3) Africa. Shimane University, Matsue, Japan, 248 pp.
• Voorhoeve, A.G., 1979. Liberian high forest trees. A systematic botanical study of the 75 most important or frequent high forest trees, with reference to numerous related species. Agricultural Research Reports 652, 2nd Impression. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, Netherlands. 416 pp.
• World Agroforestry Centre, undated. Agroforestree Database. [Internet] World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya. resources/databases/ agroforestree. Accessed October 2008.
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Other references  
 • Adewunmi, C.O., Agbedahunsi, J.M., Adebajo, A.C., Aladesanmi, A.J., Murphy, N. & Wando, J., 2001. Ethno-veterinary medicine: screening of Nigerian medicinal plants for trypanocidal properties. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77: 19–24.
• Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (Editors), 2006. Flore analytique du Bénin. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. 1034 pp.
• ATIBT (Association Technique Internationale des Bois Tropicaux), 1986. Tropical timber atlas: Part 1 – Africa. ATIBT, Paris, France. 208 pp.
• Aubréville, A., 1959. La flore forestière de la Côte d’Ivoire. Deuxième édition révisée. Tome troisième. Publication No 15. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 334 pp.
• Boutin, B., 1990. Greffage en fente terminale herbacée du Terminalia superba Engler et Diels. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 225: 33–41.
• CIRAD Forestry Department, 2003. Fraké. [Internet] Tropix 5.0. Accessed October 2008.
• Dimo, T., Laurent, F., Rakotonirina, S.V., Tan, P.V., Kamtchouing, P., Dongo, E. & Cros, G., 2006. Methanol extract of Terminalia superba induces endothelium-independent relaxation of rat thoracic aorta. Pharmazie 61(5): 470–473.
• Gyimah, A., 1999. Storage of Terminalia superba seeds. Ghana Journal of Forestry 7: 21–24.
• Hawthorne, W. & Jongkind, C., 2006. Woody plants of western African forests: a guide to the forest trees, shrubs and lianes from Senegal to Ghana. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. 1023 pp.
• Irvine, F.R., 1961. Woody plants of Ghana, with special reference to their uses. Oxford University Press, London, United Kingdom. 868 pp.
• Kamtchouing, P., Kahpui, S.M., Dzeufiet, P.D.D., Tedong, L., Asongalem, E.A. & Dimo, T., 2006. Anti-diabetic activity of methanol/methylene chloride stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104(3): 306–309.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Normand, D. & Paquis, J., 1976. Manuel d’identification des bois commerciaux. Tome 2. Afrique guinéo-congolaise. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 335 pp.
• N’zala, D. & Ikoungou, C., 2003. The response of the forest tree Terminalia superba to weed competition and intercropping in the savanna of Kombe, Congo. Tropical Science 43(4): 163–166.
• N’zala, D. & Moussounghou, J.P., 2006. Improving Terminalia superba establishment and initial growth by mulching, fertilizer and weed control. Tropical Science 46(1): 31–36.
• Phongphaew, P., 2003. The commercial woods of Africa. Linden Publishing, Fresno, California, United States. 206 pp.
• Siepel, A., Poorter, L. & Hawthorne, W.D., 2004. Ecological profiles of large timber species. In: Poorter, L., Bongers, F., Kouamé, F.N. & Hawthorne, W.D. (Editors). Biodiversity of West African forests. An ecological atlas of woody plant species. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. pp. 391–445.
• Sosef, M.S.M., Boer, E., Keating, W.G., Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995. Terminalia L. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Editors). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. pp. 474–492.
• Vivien, J. & Faure, J.J., 1985. Arbres des forêts denses d’Afrique Centrale. Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Paris, France. 565 pp.
• Wierecky, K., 1997. Limba aus Plantagenanbau in Kongo. Holz Zentralblatt 123: 1684.
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Afriref references  
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Sources of illustration  
 • Sosef, M.S.M., Boer, E., Keating, W.G., Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995. Terminalia L. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Editors). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. pp. 474–492.
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V. Kimpouni
E-mail:, Congo

R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
D. Louppe
CIRAD, Département Environnements et Sociétés, Cirad es-dir, Campus international de Baillarguet, TA C-DIR / B (Bât. C, Bur. 113), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
A.A. Oteng-Amoako
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Associate editors  
E.A. Obeng
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Correct citation of this article  
 Kimpouni, V., 2009. Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels. [Internet] Record from PROTA4U. Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Louppe, D. & Oteng-Amoako, A.A. (Editors). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands. <>. Accessed .

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General importance
Geographic coverage Africa
Geographic coverage World
Dye and tannins use
Ornamental use
Timber use
Auxiliary use
Fuel use
Medicinal use
Fibre use

Terminalia superba

Terminalia superba
1, tree habit; 2, inflorescence; 3, flower; 4, fruiting branch.
Redrawn and adapted by Achmad Satiri Nurhaman

Terminalia superba
tree habit

Terminalia superba
bole and crown

Terminalia superba

Terminalia superba
base of bole

Terminalia superba

Terminalia superba

Terminalia superba
various parts of the tree
obtained from The Virtual Field Herbarium

Terminalia superba
wood in transverse section

Terminalia superba
wood in tangential section

Terminalia superba
wood in radial section

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